Rodnov Mikhail Igorevich, Doctor of historical sciences, senior staff scientist, the department of history and cultural history of Bashkortostan, Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (71 Oktyabrya avenue, Ufa, Russia),
Background. The formation of private ownership of land among the peasants of the Russian Empire has a centuries-old history. In modern times, legally all free peasants received the right to buy land by the decree of Emperor Alexander I in 1801.
Historiography is most often distinguished by the estate of free-grain farmers formed by the decree of 1803. But the main amount of land was bought by state peasants, many from who lived on the land, which already had a legal status of collective private property in the serfdom.
Materials and methods. The sources of this study are the materials collected by the statistician Veshnyakov in the preparation of the abolition of serfdom, as well as the works of Ufa Zemstvo statistics. In the published materials of the censuses of 1895–1897 and 1912–1913 contains information on the villages where the peasant proprietors lived. The theoretical basis was the concept of modernization, the manifestation of which was the formation of the market for private ownership of land.
Results. The article gives information on the provinces of Russia, where the peasant ownership of land was formed to the greatest extent until 1861. The Orenburg region occupied the first place in terms of the total amount of land owned by the peasants, and from 1865 the Ufa province. Especially land tenure led to the folding of a large stratum of peasants of property owners from Russians, Tatars and other peoples. The main mechanism for the formation of peasant ownership in the Southern Urals was the legal change in the status of the land, from leasing to ownership.
Conclusions. The materials in the article show that the main importance in the development of peasant land ownership in Russia in the first half of the 19th century. He did not have a decree on free grain farmers, but a decree of 1801 on the right to purchase land by peasants. This law was particularly active in the outskirts of the country where the entrepreneurial economy was formed.
Russia in the 19th – early 20th centuries, agrarian system, private property, land ownership, economy, Southern Urals
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